In 1303 Lucknow Sultan Shamsuddin Firoz Shah defeated Gaur Gobind and conquered Sylhet. Sylhet was a state of Bengal Sultanate. In the 16th century, Sylhet was controlled by 12 landlords and later became a Sarkar (region) of the Mughal Empire. Originally the most important royal fort of the Mughals, Sylhet's importance continued throughout the seventeenth century. British rule began in the 18th century and was administered by the East India Company. Sylhet is a major source of lashkar with ancient maritime heritage of the British Empire. Sylhet Municipal Council was established in 1867. Originally part of Bengal Presidency and later East Bengal and Assam; The city was part of colonial Assam from 1874 to 1947, after plebiscite and the partition of British India, the city became part of East Pakistan. Sylhet City Corporation was established in 2001. In 2009, the Bangladesh government designated Sylhet as a metropolitan area.

In 1995, the Bangladesh government declared Sylhet as the headquarters of the country's sixth division. Sylhet plays an important role in the economy of Bangladesh. Many finance ministers of Bangladesh have become MPs from Sylhet. Badruddin Ahmad Kamran was the mayor of Sylhet for a long time. Humayun Rashid Chowdhury is a diplomat from Sylhet who has served as President of the United Nations General Assembly and Speaker of the National Assembly of Bangladesh.

In 2001, the city was elevated to Sylhet Municipal Corporation. It became a metropolis in 2009.


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